RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ELEMENTARY SUBSTANCES

Kaplowe J L

GROUP SIX-THE SULPHUR GROUP.

 

SELENIUM.

The provings of Sel. show a marked resemblance to Sulph. Like Sulph. the patient is of a neurasthenic type with weakness and exhaustion physically and mentally. A great urging to lie down and sleep and the aggravation after sleep show the alliance to Sulph. who feels worse after he has slept for an unusually long time. Forgetfulness is a characteristic. The exhausted state comes on easily in hot weather, and is relieved after sunset. Just as in Sulph. there is a weakness in the male sexual system.

A sensation as though drops are rolling along the urethra is found in the provings. Nocturnal polyuria exists just as in Sulph. The Sulph-like affinity for the skin is manifested by itching and biting, small eruptions and vesicles, acne with greasy seborrhoeic skin, and a sensation of heat in the skin with sweats. there is hunger at unusual times especially at night (Sulph. having the 11 : 00 a.m. hunger and weak feeling) and an unusual desire for alcohol. Sel. affects powerfully the larynx, being useful in the hoarseness of singers and speakers. There is cough with blood-stained expectoration.

TELLURIUM.

The general manifestation of Tell., such as forgetfulness, vertigo, disturbances of sleep, and headache, have not the same significance as in Sulph. and Sel. Restlessness and weakness have been brought out in the probings. The powerful action on the face shows the Sulph. trend, with vesicular and herpetic eruptions, like ringworm, covering the whole body or on single parts with itching which is worse on going to bed.

The skin symptoms are worse during rest. There is itching and swelling of the ears, and the discharge of a watery fluid with the odor of fish brine, which causes vesicles wherever it comes in contact, the ear being oedematous. Fluent coryza with lachrymation and hoarseness in the open air with cough and pressure under the sternum are marked features. Unlike sel., Tell. has painful sensitiveness of the spine, dreading even to have the back approached. The pain in the sacrum passes down the right sciatic nerve, and is worse at stool, from coughing, laughing and lying on the affected side, and relieved by walking.

GROUP FIVE-THE NITROGEN GROUP.

The actions on the vascular system, and especially on the capillaries, which give the character to the members of this group, vary however considerably in degree, and as the metallic character of the elements increase with the atomic weight, the action sphere in this group narrows itself in an organotropic sense. With Amyl nitrite there is heat and throbbing in the head, with a sense of fullness, and beating, throbbing, bursting sensation in the head and ears, and constriction in the throat and heart.

The flushed face has protruding, staring eyes. The collar seems too tight, with a desire to loosen it. The feeling of constriction in the throat extends to the chest, with dyspnoea and asthmatic breathing. All this is attended with great precordial anxiety, and violent beating of the heart and carotids. The general state is one of weakness and relaxation and general perspiration.

GLONOIN

Glonoin (nitroglycerin) has chemically the same action as the nitrites, being itself the trinitrate of glycerin. Its action is centered on the medulla and the vagus producing active cerebral anaemia and palpitation, while Amyl nit. produces hyperaemia of a passive nature. The symptoms of Glon. resemble strongly those resulting from sunstroke, yet lack the symptoms of fever and inflammation caused by Acon. and Bell.

The chief action of Glon. is a pulsating, throbbing in the whole body, an apparent plethora, with rapid deviations in the distribution of the blood. He falls down unconscious, with convulsions and frothing at the mouth. Violent heart action causes visible pulsations over the entire body, with a sense of restlessness in the entire body, constriction of the chest, anxiety, and numbness and fatigue in the left arm. The hyperaemic headaches are aggravated by movement, bending or shaking the head, from warmth especially from the heat of the sun, and from wine.

NITRIC ACID.

Nit. ac. has poor tendency to healing and the tendency to ulcerating process, these characteristics being common to other mineral acids, such as Sulphuric, Hydrochloric and Arsenious acid. In all these substances the tendency to ulceration with offensive secretion, and the tendency to bleeding is characteristic. Nit. ac. shares with the other mineral acids the power to influence the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and also that of the mouth, where there is soreness, swelling, easy bleeding, formation of ulcers, offensive odor, loosening of the teeth, and in Nit. ac. especially, a profuse salivation. Its special action is on the mucocutaneous outlets of the body, these being the mouth, rectum, anus, and vagina.

The action of the substance points to a violent poisoning, resembling the syphilitic, scrofulous or mercurial miasms. Another great characteristic is the sharp splinter-like pains in wounds, ulcers, and fissures. In gonorrhoea there is splinter-like pains in the urethra, and the presence of condylomata at the urethra. The urine, perspiration, leucorrhoea and feet sweat are offensive. The sycotic offensive excrescences on the glans penis, the ulcerated nostrils, and the fissures about the anus bleed easily. Certain alterations in the pulse, cardiac palpitation and congestive manifestations are visualized in the provings, revealing the nitrite-like action of Nit. ac.

The headaches are of the congestive type, with a feeling as though a band encircled the head. Hoarseness, cough aggravated during the night, or on lying down during the day, with whistling inspiration and depression, tightness and fullness in the chest are commonly met, while in phthisis there in purulent sputum with a tendency to bleeding, with dyspnoea and weakness in the chest and sticking pain. The generalities are excessive emaciation, inclination to take cold, jaundice with constipation, pain in the bones, weakness which obliges him to constantly lie down, drawing pains coming and going suddenly, epileptic attacks coming on after midnight, beginning with a sensation of a mouse running up and down the left side, the stitches and sticking pains as from splinters, especially on touch and the inflamed, swollen, suppurating glands.

KALI NITRICUM

In Kali nit. the potassium fraction increases the tendency to chest affections. Asthma is the chief indication, the dyspnoea being dependent on the respiratory passages and also on the heart. There is palpitation and stitches in the heart, and a tendency to cardiac weakness. So great is the dyspnoea, the patient cannot hold his breath long enough to quench his thirst.

The sense of oppression and constriction in the chest come with a dry morning cough permitting recognition of the potassium fraction, while the bloody expectoration shows the nitrite or nitrate action. There is a marked tendency to oedema. The nitrate tendency also shows itself in the bloody diarrhoea. The too profuse and too early menses, are marked by dark blood, with severe sacral pains before and after the period, showing here the resemblance to Kali carb.

NATRUM NITRICUM

Nat. nit. or Sodium nitrate (saltpetre) shows the tendency to bleeding, especially from the mouth and nose. Constitutional epistaxis at puberty and in the anaemic is a chief indication for this remedy. It, too, produces symptoms of angina pectoris. Slowing of the pulse is due to the action on the conduction system. In dental diseases there is facial neuralgia with a cinnabar-red streak on the gum, which is swollen, loosened, and subject to easy bleeding., showing the nitrate action on the mucous membranes comparable to Nit. ac.

Other symptoms dependent on the nitrate content are dull headache, aggravated by the heat from an oven and improved in the open air, rushes of heat to the head and night sweats. The distension, acid eructations, and diarrhoea are due partly to the sodium content. Numerous fleeting, sticking pains in the joints and muscles, with uncertainty in walking, recall Nat. carb. Chilliness, relaxation and hydraemia place Nat. nit. in the category of hydrogenoid agents, and since this is true of Nat. sulph., we can definitely ascribe this constitutional tendency to the sodium cation. The affinity for the vascular system, the tendency to bleeding, inflammations, fevers, angiospasm and congestions point to its sphere of action.

PHOSPHORUS.

Phos. corresponds to the slender, rapidly growing, delicate type, of light complexion with transparent skin, blue eyes and silky, blond or reddish hair. He is delicate and sensitive physically and psychically also, the sensitivity showing itself toward noises, light, music, odors, perfumes and contacts. He wants to be in the company of others, dreading to be along. the alert, animated individual giving free facial expression to his psychic processes, becomes easily fatigued and indifferent and anxious, the transition often being sudden. The aggravation of complaints from changing weather, especially during thunder storms, is characteristic for phos. The increased catabolic processes, unnatural hunger, being ravenous at night, the sudden congestions and sweats, the hectic types of reaction, show clearly the predominance of the thyroid.

Sudden congestions and vertigo due to sudden rush of blood to the head cause burning headaches, improved by cold, while warmth in any form, such as warm food or the warmth of a room, cause aggravation of the headache. the cheeks show circumscribed redness and heat. All mental efforts and sensory impressions aggravate the headache. Soon after eating the hunger returns. Before and during the headache ravenous hunger comes over him. The nervous complaints are relieved by eating, but for a short time only. There is great thirst for cold water, which relieves for a short time, and when the water has become warm in the stomach it is vomited.

The tendency to bleeding runs throughout the symptomatology, exhibited by bleeding from wounds, the nose, lungs, stomach, intestines, kidney, uterus, skin, mucous membranes and serous surfaces. The symptoms of the upper respiratory passages are aggravated by cold air, while characteristic of the cough is the aggravation from laughing or talking. The cough is also aggravated by going from the warm into cold. The expectoration is bloody. The feeling of a weight on the chest with anxiety and weakness and burning pains and heat rising to the head is a strong feature.

The sticking in the left chest is relieved by lying on the right side. The aggravation from lying as the left side is a strong indication. The cough is so severe it shakes the entire body, and he holds his chest with his hands. Skin manifestations in Phos. are few in contrast with Ars. The petechiae and ecchymoses are haemorrhagic skin manifestations. Also yellow-brown patches occur in various places, there is falling out of the hair in spots, and jaundice, areas of anaesthesia and itching. The violent palpitation is worse lying on the left side. Burning pain runs through the whole picture.

ARSENICUM.

The leading characteristics of Ars. are restlessness and anxiety, profound exhaustion, the thirst for cold water which cannot be retained, rapid emaciation, aggravation after midnight, and the relief from warmth. Delirium, anxiety and restlessness driving him from one place to another for relief coming on at three a.m., sensitivity to the least noise, fear of death, especially when alone or going to bed, are the mental states. Vertigo on entering a room disappears in the open air. The intense headache is increased by light and noise. The scalp is sensitive to touch, and as in Phos., the hair falls out easily. There is watery, excoriating coryza ameliorated in the open air, and lachrymation with corrosive tears and photophobia.

The dryness and burning in the mouth causes violent thirst, and he drinks often but little at a time. There is intense burning pain in the stomach, and vomiting of all food, as soon as it reaches the stomach, as in Phos. The cough is spasmodic, asthmatic, deep, dry, short, increasing after midnight, and is also worse on lying down and on going into the cold air. The oppression felt in the chest with whistling and constriction comes on after midnight driving him out of bed in a state of great fear and anguish. This oppression is increased by stormy weather as in phos. by warm and tight clothing, but especially from changes of warmth and cold.

The palpitation of the heart is so violent as to be visible and audible, and is accompanied by the typical state of anguish, and brings such a state of profound weakness that he must lie down. the diarrhoea is characterized by icy coldness of the body, prostration, rice-water stools, severe colic, cardiovascular collapse, cramps in the calves, fear of death, there being aggravation of the diarrhoea and the vomiting from food or drink and at night, with burning thirst, aggravation from cold drinks which are immediately vomited, improvement from warm drinks and the application of other forms of heat.

The diarrhoeas are offensive, at times bloody. The restlessness expresses itself in an uneasiness in the lower limbs especially at night, so he must walk around to get relief. The skin shows painful black eruptions, a parchment-like dryness, petechiae, pustules, vesicular eruptions, desquamation from head to foot with burning, itching, and pain after scratching, bran-like dry scaly eruptions, gangrenous sores and carbuncles.

ANTIMONIUM CRUDUM.

Ant. crud. acts on all mucous membranes and the skin, but its power seems to be expended on the intestinal mucous lining. The mucous membranes are loaded with mucus, thus interfering with digestion. The outstanding characteristic is the thick milky- white coating on the tongue. The fretful, peevish disposition with an aversion to be touched or looked at is a strong indication. There is violent thirst. the stool is watery and contains undigested food. There may be alternate diarrhoea and constipation, or continuous discharge of mucus from the anus. Rhagades form on the mucocutaneous junctions. The eczema is itching in nature.

The special characteristic is the thickening on the epidermis giving rise to wart-like, callous, horny formations especially on the soles of the feet making walking painful. the nails are split and discolored. Urticaria arises from the gastrointestinal disturbances. The aggravation is from eating, from wine, after bathing, from cold water internally and externally, and from the heat of the sun. Relief comes from rest and the open air. Ant. c. finds indication in diseases of the mucous membranes characterized by excessive secretion with a depressed state of membranes rather than a state of inflammation.

There is a mucous flow without fever in the form of a nasal, bronchial, gastric or enteric catarrh, the gastric catarrh predominating and producing the milky-white coating on the tongue, giving rise also to the loathing of food due to continual nausea and vomiting. the child vomits curdled milk, and is peevish and cross.

ANTIMONIUM TARTARICUM.

Ant. tart. finds its chief usefulness in catarrhal inflammations of the respiratory tract, with rattling of mucus in the chest, oppressed breathing, rapid pulse , nausea, vomiting and drowsiness. The mucous accumulation threatens suffocation, and relief comes after expectoration or after vomiting. At first he is able to expectorate, but soon finds himself unable to do so, giving rise to a state of asphyxia with signs of collapse, cold clammy sweat, and hippocratic facies, just as in Ars. The state of drowsiness accompanying these respiration troubles is due to the excess accumulation of carbon dioxide.

In states of emphysema with bronchial asthma, Tartar emetic competes with Ars. Both are unable to lie down because of the dyspnoea. There is great desire for fresh air, even though the body is cold, due to failing circulation. The child is anxious, peevish, and may not wish to be touched, or if being carried wants to be held upright. The anxiety, restlessness, melancholia and fear of being alone, show again the similarity to Ars.

BISMUTH.

The knowledge of Bismuth is derived from a study of the subnitrate of this element. it acts especially on those organs and functions which are under the control of the vagus nerve, especially on the stomach, where its symptoms resemble gastralgia, and in general producing irritation and catarrhal inflammation of the whole alimentary tract.

Nausea and spasmodic vomiting appear soon after eating; there is a desire for cold drinks which gives temporary relief, but vomiting follows as soon as the stomach becomes full or as soon as the liquids enter the stomach, just as in Ars., phos. and Ant. The tongue is coated white, and the taste sweet or metallic as in Ant. The pain in the abdomen is of a severe, pressive, burning character, the pressure, extending back to the spine, and relieved by bending over. Dental pain is relieved by cold water. The disposition is one of anxiety and discontent.

GROUP THREE-THE BORON-ALUMINUM GROUP.

In this group only boron and aluminum have medical importance.

ALUMINUM.

Alum. acts on the motor nervous system and on the trophic supply of the skin, yet its most specific action is directed upon the mucous membranes, those of the intestinal canal and vagina being principally involved, producing extreme dryness and lack of secretion, and a certain degree of irritation. Disturbances of coordination of ideas are manifested by confusion of thoughts and forgetfulness. the motor paretic symptoms are evidenced by difficulty in moving the arms, paralysis of one side of the body, difficulty in swallowing, weakness and paralysis of the eye-lids, the staggering walk and double vision. The constipation is due to the inability to evacuate a stool of normal consistence.

The rectum seems paralyzed, and there is no desire for and no ability to evacuate the stool until there is a large accumulation. the stools may be hard and knotty like sheep dung. Due to weakness of the bladder, the urine passes slowly. Paraesthesias in the form of crawling on the skin, sensation of a spider-web on the face, numbness in the heels on standing, swollen painful sensation of the soles of the feet on walking, sensation of a band in various parts, inability to hold objects, sensation of a hot iron pressed through the lower vertebrae, contractions of the extremities and lancinating pains, are all symptoms of degeneration of the posterior columns occuring in tabes dorsalis.

The cerebrospinal stimulus conduction is retarded, the pinch of a needle being felt with delay, in fact there is a reduction in all senses and sensations, impressions reaching the consciousness at a slow rate. The trophic or neurogenic manifestations are : defective elasticity, dryness, desquamation, vesicle formation, brittle nails and falling of the hair. It is adapted to withered, emaciated old broken-down constitutions. In pruritis senilis, he scratches until it bleeds. The itching is worse in winter and worse from the warmth of the bed. The system is deficient in vital warmth, being thus sensitive to cold, yet sensitivity is not as marked as in the elements in Groups One and Two of the periodic table.

The mucous membranes are dry and covered with tenacious deposits or crusts. The chronic dry hacking cough yields little expectoration. On the female generative tract the action is similar to Syph., the acrid transparent leucorrhoea in both instances being so profuse as to run down to the heels. the menses are scant, and are followed by mental and physical exhaustion. The intense dryness of the throat induces frequent clearing of this organ. The sensation of a splinter in the throat recalls to mind Arg. nit., Nit. ac., and Hepar s. The aggravation from potatoes is a proven clinical modality, perhaps being due to the difficult swallowing and the dryness of the mucous membranes. A desire for indigestible things such as chalk, starch and charcoal is characteristic.

BORON.

The action of Boron is understood from a knowledge of Borax, which is the biborate of soda, and it is the sodium fraction which brings expression to the symptoms of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and the general nutritional disturbances especially in nursing children.

Two outstanding sodium characteristic appear in the psyche, the hypersensitivity to unexpected noises and an aggravation from mental effort. Thinking is difficult, and may bring on nausea. The aggravation from cold wet weather is not as outstanding as in Alum. Even more pronounced than in Nat. c. is the anxiety and nervousness which lasts until sleep comes over him. He is terrified if he must change from one activity to another. Anxiety and vertigo come on with descending or swinging motion; going down stairs causes vertigo, confusion and headache, and an infant will scream with fear on being swung, carried down stairs or even put down into its crib.

This aggravation from any downward motion holds the key to the Borax constitution, and in this inability of coordination is displayed the alliance with the chief trend of Alum., which feature we have a right to attribute to the Boron constituent, since disturbances of the central nervous system accompanied by vertigo are often reported in the provings of Boric acid. The sensation of a spider-web on the face is a symptom common to both Alum. and Bor. There are here also trophic skin and mucous membrane changes, which in Alum. are exhibited by ulcerations, while Bor. striking to a lesser depth, gives expression to these changes in aphthae, these sores bleeding easily, and extending from the mouth through the entire intestinal canal. the mouth is so sore the child cannot nurse. there is salivation, vomiting of sour mucus, and abundant slimy yellow stools, or the passage of slimy masses like cooked starch.

The child has an aversion to milk, which causes diarrhoea. The mother complains of a pain in the breast when it is empty. The severe labor-like pains come before and during the flow. The profuse albuminous leucorrhoea gives the appearance of egg-white or starch paste, with a sensation as though warm water were running down the leg, or an acrid leucorrhoea may appear for two weeks between the periods. The menses are too early and profuse. the severe pain at the beginning of urination with a soreness in the urethra on urinating may be due to the hot acrid urine or the aphthae within the bladder.

Like Alum, there are chronic catarrhal states of the nose and eyelids. Chronic granular conjunctivitis is associated with inward turning of the eye- lashes (trichiasis) and entropion. The chronic nasal catarrhal state is expressed by thick and greenish discharges with crust formation, ulcerated nasal folds and easy bleeding. Vesicular, itching eruptions appear on the unhealthy skin. The hair is always tangled, sticking together at the ends. The appearance in general is one of marasmus, the child being pale, wrinkled and emaciated.

GROUP FOUR-THE CARBON GROUP.

In this group we consider only carbon and silica, the former in its elementary from being also as inert chemically as its neighbor, and the nearer carbon approaches the pure elementary and at the same time inorganic form, the more closely does it show its relationship to silica.

SILICA.

Sil. is studied in the form of the anhydride of silicic acid, Si02. The chief characteristic of this substance is its power to produce a suppurative process, in the soft tissues, in the periosteum or in the bone substance. The purulent processes show a decreased tendency to scar formation and because of its power to produce suppuration, it promotes the removal of foreign bodies and sequestrae. It is the chief remedy to be thought of in fistulae of all types, occuring as lachrymal fistulae or in the rectum, here as elsewhere the discharge being thin, acrid, and offensive. the ulcerations and suppurations occur in any part of the body and show always their defective healing power. A sensation of a hair on the tongue shows similarity to another great inflammatory remedy, Hepar calcarea sulph. the glandular swellings and indurations occur in all parts of the body.

The unhealthy skin has eruptions with itching worse at night, from cold and contact, and as a generality in Sil., relief from warmth. The child is thin, pale anaemic with large abdomen and weak muscles. He is hypersensitive to external impressions especially cold, draft, and contact, and often conforms to the picture of rickets with difficulty in learning to walk, labored gait, weak joints, enlarged head with open fontanelles, profuse sweating on the head which must be kept warm by being covered, and profound muscular weakness. It is suited to constitutions which suffer from deficient nutrition, not due to lack of food but due to imperfect assimilation. He is over- sensitive physically and mentally. He is cold even when taking active exercise.

Due to his weariness and debility he wants to lie down constantly. He is restless, anxious, faint-hearted with lack of grit and he is so fidgety he starts at the least noise. Mental efforts is difficult; he cannot bear to think. The sweat is offensive or acid smelling, being profuse on the feet making the toes sore. It is a powerful remedy for the ailments brought on by suppressed foot sweats. It also he great power over keratinized skin such as callosities, scars and excessive granulations such as keloids, through its power to stimulate fibroblastic processes. Complaints from old scars in internal organs after operations or other trauma have improved under its influence. The indication in funnel-shaped retracted nipples shows its power over malignant tumors. The hair falls out readily, and the brittle nails contain white spots which pulverize on being cut.

The tonus of the gastrointestinal canal and the abdominal musculature is reduced so that the stool accumulates in the large intestine. Due to rectal inactivity the hard, dry stool passes after great effort, and when partly expelled, recedes a gain. There is great desire for sleep after eating. The chronic headache ascends from the nape of the neck to the vertex, locating in the right eye, and is aggravated by a draft of air or by uncovering the head, and is relieved by pressure and wrapping up warmly. All his complaints are relieved by warmth, except those relating to the stomach which are relieved by cold food. This relief from artificial warmth comes from the fact that it supplies to his body the vital heat in which he is naturally deficient.

GRAPHITES.

Graph. is almost pure carbon in its natural form. The English Graphites which Hahnemann employed contained 96 percent carbon and 4 percent iron. Other types of graphites contain arsenic, and it is conceivable that these contaminations produce many symptoms of the Graph. picture. The general action is upon the skin, the lymphatics, the digestive system and the sexual organs. Chilliness, easy chilling, fear of the open air and drafts, coldness of the feet, offensive sweating of the feet in bed,m offensive sweating in general on the least exertion, night sweats, anxious alarming dreams and pallor of the face show clearly the relationship to Sil. Emaciation may be present, but the fat pasty habitus is the more typical. Fat, chilly and constipated has been the description of the typical Graph. constitution.

The pulsations in the entire body, aggravated by movement, transient facial flushes, rushes of heat, burning in the vertex, and the rush of blood to the head are symptoms which are undoubtedly dependent on the action of Ferr. The mental state of sadness, with thoughts of death, together with apprehension, indecision, anxious restlessness, irritability, and inconsolable grief with a great inclination to weep. The menses are too late, too scanty and too pale. Many complaints, especially the constipation are worse during and after the menstruation. The leucorrhoea comes in gushes, day and night, and is acrid, excoriating and watery, due to a fissuring and erosion of the cervix which is characteristic of Graph. The action on the gastrointestinal canal simulates in symptomatology almost exactly the picture of Sil.

The constipated stool is evacuated only after great effort in single lumps covered with mucus. Great effort from even soft stool in reported. Undigested stool, soon after eating, is due to the action of iron. Abdominal fullness after eating, so that the abdomen is sensitive even to the weight of the clothing, aversion to cooked foods, hot drinks, meats salty and sweet food, excessive gas accumulation, and excessive hunger and thirst are present just as in Sil. The burning in the stomach which necessitates eating may be due to Iron or Ars. Nocturnal epigastric pain is relieved by eating and by warm milk, suggesting its indication in pyloric and duodenal ulcer. The stasis in the gastrointestinal canal in Graph. involves the portal circulation more than with Sil., yet not as profoundly as with charcoal.

The venous stasis is manifest by large haemorrhoids, with burning fissures between the haemorrhoids. Itching eruptions about the anus are common. The skin is unhealthy, so that every injury suppurates and is persistently dry with a tendency to rhagades. Old cicatrices break open again, and from the eruptions on the ears, between the toes and on various parts of the body there oozes the characteristic watery, transparent sticky fluid. The itching is worse from heat and the warmth of the bed.

The mucocutaneous junctions are sites of preference, the nasal orifices being sore, fissured, crusted, and ulcerated, and the lid borders being covered with crusts. There is a scabby eruption on the scalp, the hair falls out, and the nails on the fingers and toes are thick, distorted and split. The action on scar tissue as in Sil. is powerful. In otosclerosis with decreased hearing which is better from noise and from riding, Graph, is the remedy. The hypersensitivity of the olfactory sense and the intolerance of light point to an hyperacuity of the nervous system as in Sil.

PETROLEUM.

Petr. resembles Graph. closely in its action on the skin. The unhealthiness of the skin leads to suppuration of the slightest injuries. there is itching and burning; scratching aggravates the pain , but brings relief only after bleeding occurs. The skin is so sensitive he cannot bear the weight of the clothing. The eczema of the hands is aggravated in winter, the skin being rough and cracked especially at the ends of the fingers. Vesicular and nodular eruptions appear all over, but especially behind the ears, on the scalp, causing falling out of the hair, on the scrotum and anus with fissures, which burn, itch and are moist, and are worse at night and from scratching.

In eczema there are raw moist surfaces over which thick scabs form. There is offensive axillary and foot sweat. Petr. involves the inner angle, Graph. the outer angle of the lids. Skin eruptions appear chiefly on the dorsum of the hand and feet, indicating an affinity for the glands of the hair follicles. In the ear there are all sorts of noises with difficult hearing as in Graph. The gastric complaints of Petr., especially the painful spasm and the burning, are relieved by eating as in Graph. There is ravenous hunger at night temporarily relieved by eating. The diarrhoea comes only in the morning and continues for several days.

CARBO VEGETABILIS.

Carbo veg. produces defective oxidation and a tendency to venous stasis, giving rise to fatigue, loss of strength, coldness of the body with pale or blue skin, weak pulse, cold sweat, cold breath, yet with this coldness there is always the desire for open air. The desire to be fanned is an outstanding feature in states of collapse. Offensive sweating of the feet occurs as in the other carbon compounds and in Sil. The tendency to venous stasis is manifested by the pronounced varices with prolonged dark bleeding. The foul varicose ulcers cause burning pain. The haemorrhoids are painful, itch, and bleed with every stool. There is bleeding from all mucous outlets. There are varices on the vulva, with burning, itching and ulceration.

The leucorrhoea is offensive, thick yellow-green and corrosive. The menses come too early, are profuse, last too long, and are pale. Often spotting occurs. Epistaxis may be due to nasal varicosities. The sensitive gums bleed easily. Septic and gangrenous states are common, the ulceration causing burning pain. In chronic bronchitis with lung stasis the cough is spasmodic, and may be dry even though rales are heard in the lungs, or the expectoration which does come is foul, indicating suppuration. the cough is worse in the evening and in bed, from cold, from the evening air, and after eating and talking. Damp warm weather aggravates the chest condition.

There is desire for open air. The action of Carbo veg. in cough and dyspnoea of cardiac origin is perhaps due to its being mixed with Kali carb. The accumulation of gas in the abdomen, which is distended and tense, is due to venous stasis in the intestine. The distension like a drum comes on after eating, and is relieved by eructations and the emission of flatus. This brings relief, too, from many other complaints. A strong feature is the rising of fluid from the stomach into the mouth. Even though all the pains are burning, there is a general coldness or coldness in parts. This substance is suited for old broken-down constitutions, debilitated by disease. The condition of venous stasis produces the pains, the faintness, weakness and collapse.

KREOSOTUM.

Kreos. has more marked inflammatory action on the mucous membranes and skin than wood charcoal, yet the symptoms dependent on venous stasis are much less prominent. There is a great tendency to putrid inflammations and ulcerations, malignant degenerations and bleeding. The chief characteristic is the corrosive, foul, acrid character of secretions. The itching, burning skin has vesicles and pustules, and because of its unhealthy state, tends to ulcerate and become gangrenous. The itching may become violent in the evening. It is often used in the pruritis, the carbuncles and the gangrene of diabetics. Small wounds bleed easily showing the haemorrhagic diathesis, the flow being passive in epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria and typhoid, and is followed by profound prostration.

The teeth begin to decay as soon as they appear, the gums being red, soft, spongy, bleeding and ulcerated. Vomiting of undigested food occurs several hours after eating, or there may be regurgitation of sweetish water in the morning. Salivation is profuse. The vomitus may be bloody, as in malignant processes. The severe burning, constrictive pains in the epigastrium are relieved after eating. Food remains in the stomach long after eating, causing pressure, due to a narrowing of the duodenum, in which condition Carb veg. as well as Kreos. brings improvement. The abdomen is distended ; there is bloody, offensive diarrhoea, and painful haemorrhoids. The means are too early, dark, profuse and protracted.

The flow ceases on sitting or walking about, and begins again on lying down. Cold drinks relieve the menstrual pain. The leucorrhoea is acrid, corrosive, offensive, and worse between periods, stiffening the clothing like starch, due to the high protein content. If finds use often in putrid and malignant ulcerative processes in the female genital tract. Foul lochia may indicate its use in puerperal fever. Downward pressing backache and sacral pain with a great weakness accompany the uterine ailments. kreos. is followed with good effect by Ars., phos., and Sulph. in malignant diseases. Abundant purulent sputum after each cough may be due to bronchiectasis, lung gangrene and tuberculosis.

There is incontinence of urine which is profuse and pale. The urge to micturate is sudden, and often he can urinate in the lying position only. Children are old-looking and wrinkled and emaciate rapidly. It is often used to cure the enuresis of children that occurs on first going to sleep. The general state is one of exhaustion with trembling and weakness of the legs. His complains are relieved by warmth, and aggravated becoming cold, in cold weather and even from washing with cold water. Carbo veg. and Kreos. are inimical due of course to their similarity. Other substances falling within the embrace of the Carbon Group are Pix liquida, Phenol, Sal. ac., Benz. ac., Pic. ac., Hydrocy. ac., Ox. ac., Cit. ac., Tart. ac., Lac. ac., Acet. ac. and Form. ac. These will not be described.

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